In Germany, for example, a coalition government is the norm, as it is rare for either the CDU and its CDU/CSU partners to win an unlimited majority in an election to the Bundestag. Thus, at the federal level, governments are formed with at least two parties. Thus Helmut Kohl`s CDU governed for years in coalition with the FDP; From 1998 to 2005, Gerhard Schroeder`s SPD was in power with the Greens; And from 2009, Angela Merkel, CDU/CSU was in power with the FDP. The fall of Suharto greatly increased political freedom. A total of 48 political parties participated in the 1999 elections, with a total of 24 parties in the 2004 elections, 38 parties in the 2009 elections and 15 in the 2014 elections, compared to only three parties admitted in the New Order era. There is no majority winner in these elections and coalition governments are inevitable. The current government is a coalition of seven parties led by PDIP and Golkar. The SPD is about to vote on whether to negotiate another „grand coalition“ with Angela Merkel`s conservatives. If the party says „no,“ the chancellor`s options could become scarce.
(21.01.2018) In recent decades, full legislative control of one-party parties has been rare and coalition governments are the norm: most Japanese governments since the 1990s and since 2020, all coalition governments since 1999, some of which still do not have a legal majority. The Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) had its own majority in the national parliament until 1989 (when it first governed alone) and between the 2016 and 2019 elections (when it remained in its previous governing coalition). The Democratic Party of Japan (by joining the Chamber of Deputies) briefly controlled for a few weeks a majority of one-party laws before losing the 2010 elections (it continued to govern under its previous governing coalition). The coalition government establishes an alternative model to majority governance, the latter characterized by „first past the post“ electoral systems, which prefer clear distinctions between winners and losers.  Coalitions of law groups can not only form governments in parliamentary systems, but also form divisions of power. The most common analyses of political coalitions relate to the establishment of multi-party cabinets in parliamentary regimes.  In Germany, since the end of world war, each government has been a multi-party coalition, an example of forming a coalition government within a parliamentary government.