Severance pay under legal provisions and collective agreements Congress passed the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) (29 U.S. in 1935. C A.§ 151 et seq.) to define the right of workers to collective bargaining and other group activities (§ 157). The NLRA also created the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), a federal authority empowered to uphold the right to collective bargaining (§153). The NLRA has been amended several times since 1935, including in 1947, 1959 and 1974. The NLRA only regulates labour relations for companies involved in intergovernmental trade. it therefore does not protect the collective bargaining interests of all categories of workers. Several categories of employers are outside the NLRA, including those who work for the U.S. government and its companies, states and political subdivisions, railroads, and airlines. The NLRA also does not protect certain types of workers, such as agricultural workers, self-employed contractors, supervisors and senior managers. But other federal and state laws often offer protection to workers who are not covered by the NRA. For example, federal government employees enjoy the right to bargain collectively under the Civil Services Reform Act of 1978, largely modelled according to the NLRA and enforced by the Federal Labor Relations Authority.
Railways and airlines are generally subject to the Railway Labor Act, the predecessor of the NLRA. In addition, many states have passed laws similar to those of the LNRA, which protect the right of employed state and local governments to bargain collectively. In so far as the law and practice of the Member State so permit, the contract of maritime commitment shall be understood as included in the applicable collective agreements. If one party wishes to negotiate a mandatory subject, it is an unfair labor practice if the other party refuses. Other matters are subjects of generous negotiation, and it may be an unfair labour practice for a party to demand negotiations on them (NLRB v. Wooster Division of Borg-Warner Corp., 356 U.p. 342, 78 pp. Ct.
718, 2 L. Ed. 2d 823 ). Therefore, while the parties must negotiate binding negotiating issues before translating unilateral changes into an impasse, they can unilaterally change frank issues without negotiation and cannot be forced to negotiate such changes. One area of the ongoing conflict between unions and employers is where wage increases are mandatory bargaining issues. In Acme Die Casting v. NLRB, 26 F.3d 162 (D.C Cir. 1994), the Court of Appeal analysed the employer`s historical practice of fixing the frequency and level of wage increases and found that the granting of a wage increase was not left to the discretion of the employer and that it could not be decided without negotiation with the union (see also The Daily News of Los Angeles v. .